Taxonomy

Common Name: PERCH, YELLOW
Phylum: CHORDATA
Class: OSTEICHTHYES
Order: PERCIFORMES
Family: PERCIDAE
Genus: PERCA
Species: FLAVESCENS

Taxonomic Authority: (MITCHILL)

Taxonomy References: 002

Status

GAME

Status References: 003

Habitat Summary

Inhabits lakes. Spawns over sand, gravel, or vegetation.

Primary Habitat: Aquatic - pond/lake/deep oxbow

References: 001, 009, 018, 020, 033, 038

Distribution

General Occurrence in State:

Probably no self-sustaining populations in natural waters of Missouri, small populations present in some artificial lakes *001*.

County Occurrence
Known Likely Unknown Not Likely Historic Extirpated
MACON  CEDAR  
PULASKI  CLINTON  
BATES  DADE  
RANDOLPH  JASPER  
HOWARD  JOHNSON  
ST. CHARLES  KNOX  
OSAGE  LAWRENCE  
RALLS  NODAWAY  
TANEY  PHELPS  
   SULLIVAN  
   WARREN  
   WEBSTER  
   CAPE GIRARDEAU  
   CHRISTIAN  
   COOPER  
   JACKSON  
   LINN  
   MARIES  
   POLK  
   PUTNAM  
   ST. LOUIS  
   STODDARD  
   WRIGHT  
   AUDRAIN  
   BOLLINGER  
   BUTLER  
   CHARITON  
   DALLAS  
   DEKALB  
   HARRISON  
   JEFFERSON  
   LACLEDE  
   LEWIS  
   MISSISSIPPI  
   MONROE  
   SCOTT  
   WASHINGTON  
   BARTON  
   CARTER  
   DAVIESS  
   GASCONADE  
   GRUNDY  
   HICKORY  
   IRON  
   MERCER  
   OZARK  
   PERRY  
   PIKE  
   REYNOLDS  
   SCHUYLER  
   WORTH  
   ADAIR  
   ANDREW  
   BOONE  
   BUCHANAN  
   CARROLL  
   CASS  
   COLE  
   DUNKLIN  
   GREENE  
   HOLT  
   MONITEAU  
   NEWTON  
   RIPLEY  
   ST. CLAIR  
   ATCHISON  
   BARRY  
   BENTON  
   CALLAWAY  
   CAMDEN  
   CLARK  
   CRAWFORD  
   DENT  
   FRANKLIN  
   HOWELL  
   LIVINGSTON  
   MCDONALD  
   MONTGOMERY  
   MORGAN  
   PEMISCOT  
   PETTIS  
   SCOTLAND  
   SHANNON  
   SHELBY  
   STE. GENEVIEVE  
   WAYNE  
   CALDWELL  
   CLAY  
   DOUGLAS  
   LAFAYETTE  
   MILLER  
   OREGON  
   PLATTE  
   TEXAS  
   VERNON  
   GENTRY  
   HENRY  
   LINCOLN  
   MADISON  
   MARION  
   NEW MADRID  
   RAY  
   SALINE  
   ST. FRANCOIS  
   STONE  

References for distribution: 001, 006

Distribution by Watersheds

Miss. R. from Des Moines R. to MO. R.; and North R.
North Fork from Headwaters to South Fork
South Fork from Headwaters to North Fork
Salt R.
Chariton R. from Shuteye Creek to Mo. R.
Little Chariton R.
Marais Des Cygnes from Headwaters to Little Osage R.
Little Osage R.
Osage R. from Headwaters to Warsaw, MO.
South Grand R.
Osage R. from Warsaw to Bagnell Dam
Osage R. from Bagnell Dam to Mo. R.
Gasconade R. from Headwaters to Big Piney R.
Big Piney R.
Gasconade R. from Big Piney R. to Mo. R.
Mo. R. from Little Chariton R. to Gasconade R.
White R. below Tablerock Dam and Little North Fork White R.

Comments:

Distribution by Ecoregions

Central Till Plains
Osage Plains
Ozark Highlands

Distribution by Potential Natural Vegetation

Bluestem Prairie/Oak Hickory Forest
Oak-Hickory Forest

Distribution by Natural Divisions of Missouri

Glaciated Plains: Grand River
Glaciated Plains: Eastern
Glaciated Plains: Lincoln Hills
Big Rivers: Lower Missouri
Big Rivers: Upper Mississippi
Ozark Border: Missouri River
Ozark: Upper Ozark
Ozark: White River
Osage Plains

Habitat Associations

Species is associated with Aquatic habitats

National Wetlands Inventory Association:

Lacustrine

Aquatic Associations:

Lacustrine

References for Aquatic Associations:

001, 006, 039

Habitat Types:

Pond, Lake, Reservoir

References for Habitat Types: 001, 004, 009, 016, 033, 035, 039

Terrestrial Natural Communities:

References for Terrestrial Natural Communities:

Food Habits

Trophic Level:

Carnivore

Larval Food Habits

Bacillariophyceae (diatoms); Not Specified
Zooplankton; Not Specified
Rotiferans; Not Specified
Crustaceans; Not Specified
Branchiopods (Daphnia, Cladocera); Not Specified
Copepods (Cyclops, Calanus); Not Specified

Comments for larval food habits:
In MN, perch began feeding at 6 mm long, yolk sac absorption completed at 7.1 mm, copepod nauplii dominant food at initiation *033*. In WA, ate mostly calanoid copepods and cyclopoid copepods *048*. In SD, first food copepod nauplii, switched to adult copepods by 7 mm tl, then to Cladocera and large calanoid copepods by 14 mm tl *053*.

References for larval food habits: Comments for larval food habits:
033, 039, 048, 053

Juvenile Food Habits

Rotiferans; Not Specified
Hirudineans (leeches); Not Specified
Molluscs; Not Specified
Bivalve molluscs; Not Specified
Arachnids (spiders, ticks, mites, scorpions, daddy longlegs); Not Specified
Crustaceans; Not Specified
Branchiopods (Daphnia, Cladocera); Not Specified
Ostracods (Eucypris); Not Specified
Copepods (Cyclops, Calanus); Not Specified
Insects Insects; Not Specified
Ephemeroptera (mayflies); Not Specified
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies); Not Specified
Hemiptera (water bugs, water boatmen, stink bugs); Adult Stage
Coleoptera (beetles); Not Specified
Trichoptera (caddisflies); Not Specified
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos, gnats); Larva stage
Osteichthyes (bony fishes); Juvenile stage
Cypriniformes (minnows, carps, suckers); Larva stage
Aquatic Insects; Not Specified

Comments for juvenile food habits:
In MN, plankton crustaceans ranged from 43.1% - 79% volume in diet *037,038*. In MI, 87.5% (volume) of young-of-year food was Chironomid larvae and small Entomostracans *020*. In Lake Huron, fish appeared in stomachs of 4" perch *030*. In MI, perch less than 119 mm fed almost entirely on invertebrates *014*. Perch 8-11 mm in MN primarily ate cyclopoid copepods *033*. Characteristic changes in perch diet: zooplankton to insect larvae to fish, major changes seem to appear around 40-60 mm and 140-160 mm lengths *020,027*. In SD selection of food items was related to food item density. As length increased, diet included benthic invertebrates. Juveniles greater than 5o mm tl fed mainly on corixids, chironomids and large copepods *053*. In MI diet Switched to benthic invertebrates during August *056*.

References for juvenile food habits:
013, 014, 017, 020, 025, 027, 029, 030, 033, 037, 038, 039, 041, 043, 044, 053, 056

Adult Food Habits

See comments on seasonal variation; Not Specified
Hirudineans (leeches); Not Specified
Molluscs; Not Specified
Bivalve molluscs; Not Specified
Snails; Not Specified
Crustaceans; Not Specified
Branchiopods (Daphnia, Cladocera); Not Specified
Ostracods (Eucypris); Not Specified
Copepods (Cyclops, Calanus); Not Specified
Malacostraca (lobster, shrimp, crayfish, crabs); Not Specified
Insects Insects; Larva stage
Insects Insects; Not Specified
Ephemeroptera (mayflies); Not Specified
Odonata (dragonflies, damselflies); Not Specified
Hemiptera (water bugs, water boatmen, stink bugs); Adult Stage
Trichoptera (caddisflies); Larva stage
Trichoptera (caddisflies); Not Specified
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos, gnats); Larva stage
Diptera (flies, midges, mosquitos, gnats); Pupa stage
Osteichthyes (bony fishes); Egg stage
Osteichthyes (bony fishes); Not Specified
Cypriniformes (minnows, carps, suckers); Not Specified
Perciformes (bass, sunfishes, perches, drums, sculpins); Larva stage
Perciformes (bass, sunfishes, perches, drums, sculpins); Juvenile stage
Perciformes (bass, sunfishes, perches, drums, sculpins); Not Specified
Aquatic Insects; Not Specified

Comments for adult food habits:
In Lake Erie, migratory perch stomachs contained Daphnia, non-migratory perch did not. Migration from bay to lake may have served to obtain cladocerans *019*. In MI,young bluegills formed bulk of diet, perch 120-139 mm tl ate many invertebrates, but fish made up 67% (volume) of diet, perch greater than 139 mm tl had diet of mostly fish *014*. In clear lake, IA, amount of fish taken increased with age *026*. In MI,fish 56.4% of food volume (April-June) and 27.3% (July-August), odonate naiads and Trichoptera larvae 51.6% volume (July-August) *020*. In MN,crustaceans and insects important for 1st part of season, fish became more important last part of summer *038*. Also in MI,fish eaten only by perch 200-349 mm long, of those fish taken over rocky bottom, crayfish made up 2/3 of food volume in size 200-349 mm perch during July-September *016*. In SD study, chironomids were a major component of diet. Corixids were important for populations with a large proportion of fish greater than 200 mm tl, zooplankters important for populations with large proportion of fish less than 200 mm tl *052*. In a MI lake, good growth was believed to be due to a diet of large invertebrates *056*.

References for adult food habits: 013, 014, 017, 019, 027, 030, 052, 054, 056

Niche Requirements

Feeding Larvae Niche Requirements

Water temperature specified in comments(00010)
Aquatic vegetation: coontail (Ceratophyllum)
Aquatic vegetation
Big river habitat: main channel
Big river habitat: backwaters
Big river habitat specified in comments(00175)

References for feeding larvae niche requirements: 022, 036, 046, 050, 051

Resting Larvae Niche Requirements

Water temperature specified in comments(00010)
Aquatic vegetation: coontail (Ceratophyllum)

References for resting larvae niche requirements: 022, 036, 046

Feeding Juvenile Niche Requirements

Water temperature specified in comments(00010)
Bottom type: mud or silt
Bottom type: sand
Bottom type specified in comments(00100)
Underwater cover: woody debris
Big river habitat: sandbar complexes
Big river habitat specified in comments(00175)
General habitat association specified in comments(00270)

References for feeding juvenile niche requirements: 009, 017, 027, 028, 038, 041, 050, 053

Resting Juvenile Niche Requirements

Water temperature specified in comments(00010)
Bottom type specified in comments(00100)
Big river habitat: backwaters
Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)
Inland wetlands: backwaters
General habitat association specified in comments(00270)

References for resting juvenile niche requirements: 009, 017, 027, 028, 038, 041, 045

Breeding Adult Niche Requirements

Water temperature: cold water: less than 21 c (70 f)
Water temperature specified in comments(00010)
Turbidity: clear water
Bottom type: sand
Bottom type: gravel
Bottom type: rubble
Bottom type: rooted aquatic vegetation
Underwater cover specified in comments(00105)
Current velocity: slow current
Aquatic habitat zone: prefers the shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
Big river habitat: backwaters
Big river habitat specified in comments(00175)
Water level: permanently flooded
Water depth: shallow
Water depth specified in comments(00230)
Inland wetlands: pond, lake, reservoir
Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)

References for breeding adult niche requirements: 001, 009, 022, 024, 031, 035, 039, 049, 051, 053

Feeding Adult Niche Requirements

Dissolved oxygen specified in comments(00020)
Underwater cover: boulder
Underwater cover: log complex
Underwater cover: undercut bank
Aquatic vegetation
Big river habitat: main channel border
Big river habitat: backwaters
Big river habitat: tributary confluence
Big river habitat: sandbar complexes
Water level: permanently flooded
Water depth specified in comments(00230)
Inland wetlands: pond, lake, reservoir

References for feeding adult niche requirements: 012, 015, 017, 021, 027, 032, 035, 047, 057

Resting Adult Niche Requirements

Dissolved oxygen specified in comments(00020)
Aquatic vegetation
Water depth specified in comments(00230)

References for resting adult niche requirements: 015, 017, 021, 027, 032, 035

Niche Requirement Summary

Water temperature: cold water: less than 21 c (70 f)
Inland wetlands specified in comments(00250)
Dissolved oxygen specified in comments(00020)
Bottom type: rubble
Underwater cover specified in comments(00105)
Current velocity: slow current
Big river habitat: main channel border
Water temperature specified in comments(00010)
Bottom type: mud or silt
Underwater cover: undercut bank
Aquatic vegetation
Big river habitat: main channel
General habitat association specified in comments(00270)
Water depth: shallow
Water depth specified in comments(00230)
Bottom type: sand
Big river habitat: tributary confluence
Big river habitat: sandbar complexes
Inland wetlands: pond, lake, reservoir
Bottom type: rooted aquatic vegetation
Big river habitat: backwaters
Big river habitat specified in comments(00175)
Water level: permanently flooded
Other niche requirements specified in comments(99999)
Turbidity: clear water
Bottom type: gravel
Underwater cover: log complex
Aquatic habitat zone: prefers the shallows with emergent vegetation (littoral zone)
Bottom type specified in comments(00100)
Underwater cover: boulder
Underwater cover: woody debris
Aquatic vegetation: coontail (Ceratophyllum)
Inland wetlands: backwaters

Comments for all niche requirement fields:
Code Comment
00010:Feeding and survival of well-fed percid larvae is possible at temperatures greater than 10 C and optimal at greater than 20 C *36*. In NY, survival was 1.6-5.9% when water temperature 11-14 c; 7.7-18.4% when temperature rose to 16-19 C *22*. In the lab, young perch were more often associated with thermal conditions in 20-25 C range (acclimated to 15 c), in the field, young remained in warmer water than adults *28*. In MO river reservoirs, peak spawning at 10 c, range 8-13 C*09*. General temperature range 3-16 C*39* in Lake Michigan, migration of males occurred at 6-7 C*35* in SC, spawned at about 10 C *31* in NY, spawn at 7-11 C *22*. In SD spawning begins at 7 degrees C *53*.
00020:In a lab study, adult perch consumed less food when dissolved oxygen 3.5mg/l or less, but survival unaffected by reduced dissolved oxygen exposures *12*. In MI, toleration threshold 0.4-0.3ppm *15*.
00100:In AL and GA, found over bottoms of soft silt, sand, or hard clay *41*.
00105:Preferred spawning substrate in SD periphyton-free woody structure along shorelines. Many egg masses found in submerged branches of live trees, also used submerged conifer bundles *53*.
00175:Larval fish and juveniles primarily use off-channel habitats *50*.
00230:In Lake Ontario, eggs deposited on bottom in 5-10ft of water *24*. In SD, 75% spawned at depths of .6-.9 m *53*. In Lake Michigan, males migrated to shallow water (6-12m) to spawn *35*.
00250:In the Mississippi River, young-of-the-year were found in backwaters during winter. Backwaters generally had temperatures slightly warmer than the main channel, and also provided refuge from the river current. *45*.
00270:In MO r. Reservoirs, seine catches of juveniles generally highest in shallow, more productive areas of reservoirs *09*. In MN, usually inhabit shallow waters along shores of lakes *38*. In Ontario, juveniles inhabited open waters adjacent to shore for 1st 2-3 weeks after hatching *27*. In long lake, MN small perch usually found few feet below surface, either above aquatic plant zone or over deep water *17*.
99999:In SD, 94% of egg masses were within 30 m of shore. Most spawning sites were along windblown shorelines, not in protected bays *53*. In MN, adults observed in or just above aquatic plants, particularly at 2-4m depth contours *17*. In Lake Ontario, adults found in open weedbeds in shallow inlets (often less than 1.5m deep), biggest perch usually in channels at depths of 2-3m *27*. Majority of perch in Lake Mendota (under ice) recorded at 30-60 feet *32*. Generally concentrated in deeper waters during winter *32,21*. In Lake Michigan, most perch in deep water (24m) early April, as water temperature increased, moved shoreward for spawning *35* generally spend summer in shallow water, move to deeper water by late fall *35,32,21*. In Lake Nipissing, (early May) adults netted 60-150' deep, (late May and early June) 20-30', (late August/early September) indications that perch not present in numbers greater than 30' deep, in spring, scattered through lake to depths of 150' *28*.

Life History Information

Periodicity specified in comments(030)
Mortality rate specified in comments(031)
Migration patterns specified in comments(033)
Regulatory factors specified in comments(035)
Age and growth information specified in comments(038)
Length-weight relationships specified in comments(039)
School throughout life
Schooling behavior specified in comments(040)
Other life history information specified in comments(099)
Origin in state: stocked - populations are artificially maintained
Seasonal distribution in state: all seasons
Closely associated plant or animal species specified in comments(003)
Foraging strategy specified in comments(004)
Foraging sites: water
Foraging sites: feed on bottom of stream, lake or pond
Breeding season specified in comments(007)
Spawning site: sand
Spawning site: gravel
Spawning site: aquatic vegetation
Spawning site specified in comments(012)
Gestation/incubation period specified in comments(017)
Parental care of young: no care
Age at sexual maturity specified in comments(022)

Comments about Life History:
Code Comment
003:After introduction of zebra mussels into Oneida Lake, zooplankton populations increased which caused young-of-year growth to increase *058*.
004:Forage by active pursuit *005*
007:In general spawn late February to early July at different locals.*036* in Lake Michigan, all males had running milt by May 18.*035* in lake Ontario, spent or partly spent females found 1st of May to late June. *024* in MO R. reservoirs, spawning peak early May, essentially complete by end of May, young hatch 1st of May to 1st of June.*009* in SC, spawning began late February/early March, continued spawning through April.*031* Initiate egg deposition on Apr 21 for 15 days *061*.
012:Spawning substrate includes submerged trees, brush, and periphyton-free wood structures *061*.
017:In MO R. reservoirs, incubation of early-laid eggs lasts about 3 weeks. After water temperature rises, incubation reduced to 10-14 days. Hatching at any locality usually completed within 2 weeks.*009*
022:In IN, all males mature by age II (150-160 mm), females all mature at age IV (230-240 mm).*025* in WI, females mature in 3rd year of life.*021* no females found to mature before 3rd summer in Lake Ontario.*024* in SC, 7/130 age-1 males greater than92 mm were mature, all of 23 age-2 males greater than130 mm were mature, smallest and youngest mature female was 130 mm and age-2, some age-3 females 130-135 mm were mature, all age-3 females greater than145 mm were mature.*031*
030:In MN, tended to rest on vegetation, logs or on bottom at night.*017* in MO, rest in deeper water during day and move inshore to feed late afternoon and evening.*001* in Lake Erie, all perch inactive during darkness, migratory perch (from bay to lake) showed daily sunrise and sunset activity peaks, non-migratory perch became active at sunrise, peak activity about 1700 hours and became inactive after sunset, young of the year and yearlings inactive at night *019*. Under ice at Lake Mendota, WI perch showed bimodal diel pattern, 1st peak in midmorning was much higher than 2nd peak in midafternoon.*032*
031:First year mortality extremely high, loss of egg-prolarvae stages has been estimated at 82-98%.*022*.
033:Seasonal migration common, from deepwater wintering areas to shallow-water spawning areas in spring. *018* data indicated daily migrations from bay to Lake Erie and back.*019*
035:Predation, including cannibalism, can be an important factor.*039,034,040* in NY, cannibalism most intense during August, when young perch averaged 40-70 mm tl, data indicates cannibalism may act as compensatory mortality factor.*034* in Oneida Lake, NY most age I and II yellow perch mortality attributable to walleye predation, predation was concentrated in spring, this suggests that older perch were replaced in diet when age 0 perch became vulnerable to predation mid-late June. In Oneida Lake, perch outgrow vulnerability to walleye predation during 120-200 mm length range.*040* parasites include: diplostomum adamsi, black grubs, fish louse, and leeches.*023,026*. Northern pike may reduce abundance and size structure of yellow perch through predation *059*.
038:Few yellow perch greater than12" long or greater than 1 pound have been reported from mo.*01* in SC, young of the year grew from 7 mm (early March) to about 40 mm (early June).*031*
039:In Clear Lake, IA, length-weight equation: log w = -5.6902 + 3.483 log l, where l= standard length in mm and w = weight in g.*026*
040:During day form schools, disperse at twighlight *018*
099:Mercury concentration in yellow perch is associated with lake pH and nutrient enrichment *060*.

References for life history: 060, 061, 001, 006, 009, 010, 011, 017, 018, 019, 021, 022, 024, 025, 031, 032, 035, 036, 039, 058, 059

Management

Beneficial Management Practices:
Regulate harvest of species being described
Water - develop/maintain lakes/ponds
Water - control sedimentation
Water - develop/maintain submerged brush/timber/debris, etc.

Beneficial Management References: 006, 042, 053

Adverse Management Practices:
Water - dredging and filling
Water - drainage of wetlands, marshes, ponds, lakes

Adverse Management References: 006

Comments on Management: In MN lake, removal of 85% of estimated standing crop of adult white suckers over period of 7 years, yellow perch increased 15-fold. Data indicated removal of white suckers from lakes with limited fish species diversity appears to benefit percid populations *037*. In SD study, fast growth in high-quality populations was attributed to a diet where macroinvertebrates (chironomids, amphipods and corixids) were primary prey *052*. beneficial to provide loosely-bundled conifers for spawning substrate, in main body of lake, along shorelines in water 1-3 m deep *053*. In NE Sandhill Lakes, size structure and abundance of yellow perch was reduced when northern pike were present *059*.

References for Management Comments: 037, 052, 053

References

Reference Code Citation
(001)Pflieger, W.L. 1997. The Fishes Of Missouri, Revised Edition. Mo Dept. Of Conservation. Jefferson City, Mo. 372 Pp.
(002)Nelson, Joseph S., Edwin J. Crossman, Héctor Espinosa-Pérez, Lloyd T. Findley, Carter R. Gilbert, Robert N. Lea, and James D. Williams. 2004. Common And Scientific Names Of Fishes From The United States, Canada and Mexico (6th Ed.). Amer. Fish Soc. Spec. Publ. No. 29. 386 pp.
(003)The Wildlife Code of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation, P.O. Box 180, Jefferson City, MO 65102. 573-751-4115.
(004)Kelly, G. (Ed.) 1986. Animal Habitat Relations Handbook. Mo Dept. Of Conservation and U.S.D.A. Forest Service. Jefferson City, Mo. 293 Pp.
(005)Thom, R.H. and J.H. Wilson. 1980 The Natural Divisions Of Missouri. Trans. Mo Acad. Sci. 14:9-24.
(006)Unpb Pflieger, W.L. Mo Dept. Of Conservation, 1110 S. College Ave., Columbia, Mo 65201. (573-882-9880).
(007)Unpb Pflieger, W.L. The Stream Resources Of Missouri. D-J Project F-1-R-28. Study S-20. Mo Dept. Conserv. 1110 S. College Ave. Columbia, Mo 65201. (573)882-9880.
(008)Coots, M. 1956. The Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens (Mitchell), In The Klamath River. Calif. Fish and Game 42(7):219-229.
(009)Nelson, W.R. and C.H. Walburg, 1977. Population Dynamics Of Yellow Perch (Perca Flavescens), Sauger (Stizostedion Canadense), And Walleye (S. Vitreum Vitreum) In Four Main Stem Missouri River Reservoirs. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34(10):1748-1763.
(010)Hall, D.J. and E.E. Werner. 1977. Seasonal Distribution And Abundance Of Fishes In The Littoral Zone Of A Michigan Lake. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 106(6):545-555.
(011)Werner, E.F., D.J. Hall, D.R. Laughlin, D.J. Wagner, L.A. Wilsmann, and F.C. Funk. 1977. Habitat Partitioning In A Freshwater Fish Community. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34(3):360-370.
(012)Carlson, A.R., J. Blocher, and L.J. Herman. 1980. Growth And Survival Of Channel Catfish And Yellow Perch Exposed To Lowered Constant And Diurnally Fluctuating Dissolved Oxygen Concentrations. Prog. Fish Cult. 42(2):73-78.
(013)Keast, A. and D. Webb. 1966. Mouth And Body Form Relative To Feeding Ecology In The Fish Fauna Of A Small Lake, Lake Opicon, Ontario. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 23:1847-1874.
(014)Moffett, J.W. and B.P. Hunt. 1943. Winter Feeding Habits Of Bluegills, Lepomis Macrochirus Rafinesque, And Yellow Perch Perca Flavescens (Mitchell), In Cedar Lake, Washtenaw County, Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 73:231-242.
(015)Cooper, G.P. and G.N. Washburn. 1949. Relation Of Dissolved Oxygen To Winter Mortality Of Fish In Michigan Lakes. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 76:23-33.
(016)Wells, L. 1980. Food Of Alewives, Yellow Perch, Spottail Shiners, Trout-Perch, And Slimy And Fourhorn Sculpins In Southeastern Lake Michigan. Usfws Tech. Pap. 98. 12pp.
(017)Unpb Moyle, P.B. 1969. Ecology Of The Fishes Of A Minnesota Lake, With Special Reference To The Cyprinidae. P.H.D. Dissertation. Univ. Of Minnesota. 174 Pp.
(018)Thorpe, J.E. 1977. Morphology, Physiology, Behavior, And Ecology Of Perca Fluviatilis L. and P. Flavescens Mitchill. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 34(10):1504-1514.
(019)Scott, D.C. 1955. Activity Patterns Of Perch, Perca Flavescens, In Rondeau Bay Of Lake Erie. Ecology 36(2):320-327.
(020)Clady, M.D. 1974. Food Habits Of Yellow Perch, Smallmouth Bass And Largemouth Bass In Two Unproductive Lakes In Northern Michigan. Am. Midl. Nat. 91(2):453-459.
(021)Hasler, A.D. 1945. Observations On The Winter Perch Population Of Lake Mendota. Ecology 26(1):90-94.
(022)Clady, M.D. 1976. Influence Of Temperature And Wind On The Survival Of Early Stages Of Yellow Perch, Perca Flavescens. J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 33(9):1887-1893.
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